Hindemith, the most important inter-war German composer, was one of the most significant European modernists. Sander knew him in Köln, and photographed him. In Berlin he was drawn to Busoni and Varèse, and collaborated with Brecht (who inspired his ideas about ‘utility music’) and with Weill, but fell out with both. He worked with Massine, was commissioned by Balanchine, corresponded with Milhaud and Claudel, and was friends with Britten, Walton and Stravinsky. He met Bartók in Cairo, and taught Bernstein. His relationship with Graham (he composed, she choreographed, they met only once) was testing.