Pasteur got the aged Biot’s crucial support after demonstrating the handedness of tartaric acid crystals. Bernard collaborated on the invention of pasteurisation, Roux on development of the rabies vaccine, and Duclaux, a close friend, on the study of silkworm disease. The carelessness of his assistant Chamberland led to his advances in immunisation. Lister applied his discoveries in establishing modern antiseptic surgery, and visited him on his 50th birthday. Mechnikov travelled from Odessa to ask his advice, and was given a job and laboratory for the rest of his life. Koch and Pasteur had a bitter dispute about vaccination.