Bernard brought rigorous scientific method to the study of medicine, while also influencing a circle of artists and writers (especially Zola). As a student, Rayer was his mentor, Magendie his beacon (he became Magendie’s assistant and eventual successor). His friend Pelouze gave him curare-tipped arrows to experiment with, and along with Rayer arranged a marriage for him. He worked with his friend Pasteur on pasteurisation and in the demolition of old beliefs in spontaneous generation. Taine and Renan were friends, Chevreul a colleague, Berthelot both friend and colleague, and Bert and d’Arsonval research assistants.