Paolozzi was a fellow-student; Banham was met at the Institute for Contemporary Arts. The Smithsons, as well as Paolozzi and Banham, were fellow-members of the Independent Group, popular-culture enthusiasts and technological optimists. Hamilton wrote to Duchamp for confirmation of facts relating to his work, and went on to work closely with him, curating an important retrospective of his work and making a new version of the Large Glass. Roth collaborated extensively with Hamilton until his own death. Gertler taught him briefly, as a 14-year-old.