Heartfield, Dix, Schlichter and Grosz were met as a reluctant engineering student. Grosz became a close friend, encouraged him to change direction, and taught him drawing. He became an apprentice typographer in Herzfelde’s publishing business, and helped with a Reinhardt stage production. Éluard invited him to Paris after Bellmer sent him and Breton his ‘Doll’ book, and went on to collaborate with him. Ernst, Ray, Tanguy and Éluard became close friends in Paris. He corresponded with Tzara, did illustrations for Bataille, and made collaborative work with Ernst when they were interned together in wartime France.