Césaire, Niger and Tirolien were his colleagues when he founded the celebrated and influential review and publishing-house ‘Présence Africaine’ in Paris; Senghor, Wright and Leiris aided and abetted. Camus (whom he’d first met when studying in Algiers), Sartre and Gide were on its editorial board. Rabémananjara was a close friend as well as colleague, Césaire and Senghor lifelong friends. Anta Diop was another whose work he published who also became his friend. He was instrumental in bringing Fanon, Bâ, Price-Mars and many others together for the first black writers’ congress.