Du Camp was as much adventurer as writer. Flaubert was a lifelong intimate friend, sending him his manuscripts for comment before publication. They took a walking tour of Brittany before their 21-month expedition to Egypt, Syria and Palestine (dedicated to the exploration of low-life pursuits as much as to historical remains). Du Camp’s archaeological photographs were pioneering — the first time travel books had used the medium. Gautier was another close friend and associate; the two founded a literary review, in which ‘Madame Bovary’ first appeared. Gray taught him photography; Sand asked Flaubert for du Camp’s address, so she could write to him.